[223] The quake and tsunami killed 378 elementary, middle-school, and high school students and left 158 others missing. [173][174], Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. [263] On 12 March 252 dams were inspected and it was discovered that six embankment dams had shallow cracks on their crests. [393][394], The quake gave scientists the opportunity to collect a large amount of data to model the seismic events that took place in great detail. [92] A report by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, published in Science on 2 December 2011, concluded that the seabed in the area between the epicenter and the Japan Trench moved 50 metres (160 ft) east-southeast and rose about 7 metres (23 ft) as a result of the quake. [327][328] Tōhoku Electric Power Co. stated this may have been due to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents but was not from the Onagawa plant itself. [159] The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. "[386], Nine days after the earthquake hit, a visualization and sonification were uploaded to YouTube allowing listeners to hear the earthquake as it unfolded in time. [307][308][309] Officials from the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency reported that radiation levels inside the plant were up to 1,000 times normal levels,[310] and that radiation levels outside the plant were up to eight times normal levels. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought they were on high enough ground to be safe. If the initial estimate is confirmed, it will be the fifth largest earthquake in recorded history. Most tsunamis, like the one that formed off Tohoku, are triggered by underwater tectonic activity, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The system automatically stopped all high-speed trains, which minimized the damage. To prevent under-reporting of tsunami heights, early quantitative observation data that are smaller than the expected amplitude will be overridden and the public will instead be told that the situation is under observation. [160] A 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) high tsunami hit Chiba Prefecture about 2½ hours after the quake, causing heavy damage to cities such as Asahi. Video footage of the towns that were worst affected shows little more than piles of rubble, with almost no parts of any structures left standing. [185] Hawaii estimated damage to public infrastructure alone at US$3 million, with damage to private properties, including resort hotels such as Four Seasons Resort Hualalai, estimated at tens of millions of dollars. [269] TEPCO, which normally provides approximately 40 GW of electricity, announced that it could only provide about 30 GW, because 40% of the electricity used in the greater Tokyo area was supplied by reactors in the Niigata and Fukushima prefectures. Subsequent analysis found that many Japanese nuclear plants, including Fukushima Daiichi, were not adequately protected against tsunamis. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several metres. As of the end of May 2011, residents of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures had requested deregistration of 15,000 vehicles, meaning that the owners of those vehicles were writing them off as unrepairable or unsalvageable. Because of the unquestioning nature of most Japanese media to hold to the "party line", many Japanese mid-level officials and experts spoke to foreign media to get their opinions and observations publicized. [295], The Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant and Tōkai nuclear power stations, consisting of a total eleven reactors, were automatically shut down following the earthquake. [100] In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in). The tsunami caused nuclear accidents, primarily the level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. [77][78] Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events. Four dams within the quake area were unreachable. [274], To help alleviate the shortage, three steel manufacturers in the Kanto region contributed electricity produced by their in-house conventional power stations to TEPCO for distribution to the general public. [190] The surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses,[191] with waves of up to 3 m (9.8 ft). A magnitude 7.4 Mw at 15:08 (JST), 7.9 Mw at 15:15 and a 7.7 Mw quake at 15:26 all occurred on 11 March. Because tsunami walls had been overtopped, the committee also suggested, besides building taller tsunami walls, also teaching citizens how to evacuate if a large-scale tsunami should strike. 1. "[53] Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water.[54]. [101], The first sign international researchers had that the earthquake caused such a dramatic change in the Earth's rotation came from the United States Geological Survey which monitors Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) stations across the world. [103], A month later, a major aftershock struck offshore on 7 April with a magnitude of 7.1 Mw. An official in the city's government trash disposal department estimated that it would take three years to empty these sites. With damage to so many power plants, it was feared it might be years before a long-term solution could be found. [322], A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. About 90 seconds after an earthquake, an additional report on the possibility of a tsunami will also be included in observation reports, in order to warn people before the JMA magnitude can be calculated. Many sections of Tōhoku Expressway serving northern Japan were damaged. [114], One minute before the earthquake was felt in Tokyo, the Earthquake Early Warning system, which includes more than 1,000 seismometers in Japan, sent out warnings of impending strong shaking to millions. [237], Noted individual fatalities within Japan included 104-year-old Takashi Shimokawara, holder of the world athletics records in the men's shot put, discus throw and javelin throw for the over-100 age category. On the day of the quake itself American broadcaster NPR was unable to reach anyone in Sendai with a working phone or access to the Internet. [177] The United States National Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas in most of California, all of Oregon, and the western part of Alaska, and a tsunami advisory covering the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of Washington and British Columbia, Canada. [279][280][281] Japanese government continue to ask the public to conserve electricity for several years until year 2016, when it predicted that the supply will be sufficient to meet demand, thanks to the deepening of the mindset to conserve electricity among corporate and general public, addition of new electricity providers due to the electricity liberalization policy, increased output from renewable energy as well as fossil fuel power stations, as well as sharing of electricity between different electricity companies. There was a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on the 9th of March, 2 days before the 8.9-9.0 magnitude earthquake of the 11th. 05:46, 11/03/2011. The Japanese Foreign Ministry confirmed the deaths of nineteen foreigners. Japan specifically requested assistance from teams from Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, and the United States. Scientific information about the Tōhoku earthquake, Satellite Photos of Japan, Before and After the Quake and Tsunami, Japan in Crisis: A Series of Interviews with Scholars by Peter Shea at the University of Minnesota, Special: The Tōhoku-Oki Earthquake, Japan, Japan Gigantic Earthquake and Tsunami 2011, The East Japan Earthquake Archive (Testimonies of survivors, Photographs and Videos on Google Earth), Gross, Richard. [145][146], Large parts of Kuji and the southern section of Ōfunato including the port area were almost entirely destroyed. Nanjo et al. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo. The Japan Digital Archive is presented in English and Japanese and is hosted at the Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Both were overshadowed in 2011 by the Tohoku earthquake, also known as the Great East Japan Earthquake. In Sendai, a 145,000-barrel (23,100 m3)-per-day refinery owned by the largest refiner in Japan, JX Nippon Oil & Energy, was also set ablaze by the quake. 2. [69] The seismic moment (M0), which represents a physical size for the event, was calculated by the USGS at 3.9×1022 joules,[85] slightly less than the 2004 Indian Ocean quake. [285], An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. [300], A report by the IAEA in 2012 found that the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant, the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, had remained largely undamaged. Two months after the earthquake, mangaka Hirohiko Araki incorporated the earthquake itself into the story of JoJolion, the eighth installment of the JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series; while JoJolion is set several months after the fictional town of Morioh was devastated by the earthquake, the earthquake has a key role in the plot as it is the cause behind the emergence of the Wall Eyes, mysterious stone structures that ultimately set the story into motion. [76] The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan since instrumental recordings began in 1900. Expected magnitudes may be as large as 7.9–8.0. [381], It was noted that the Japanese news media has been at times overly cautious to avoid panic and reliance on confusing statements by experts and officials. [36], The earthquake moved Honshu (the main island of Japan) 2.4 m (8 ft) east, shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in),[38][39][40] increased earth's rotational speed by 1.8 µs per day,[41] and generated infrasound waves detected in perturbations of the low-orbiting Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite. [115][116] The warning for the general public was delivered about 8 seconds after the first P wave was detected, or about 31 seconds after the earthquake occurred. [242] His body was found on 2 April 2011 along Ocean Beach in Fort Stevens State Park, Oregon, 530 km (330 mi) to the north. The temblor also shortened the length of a day by about a microsecond. [121], An upthrust of 6 to 8 metres (20 to 26 ft) along a 180 kilometres (110 mi) wide seabed at 60 kilometres (37 mi) offshore from the east coast of Tōhoku[122] resulted in a major tsunami that brought destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands. The violent movement of the Earth's tectonic plates … [248] The earthquake and tsunami created an estimated 24–25 million tons of rubble and debris in Japan. However, the estimated intensities were smaller than the actual ones in some places, especially in Kanto, Koshinetsu, and Northern Tōhoku regions where the populace warning did not trigger. [379] Other nationwide Japanese and international TV networks also broadcast uninterrupted coverage of the disaster. [247] Three hundred hospitals with 20 beds or more in Tōhoku were damaged by the disaster, with 11 being completely destroyed. [182][183], In the Philippines, waves up to 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. This calculation is, in turn, based on the maximum amplitude of the seismic wave. Calculations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory determined that the Earth's rotation was changed by the earthquake to the point where the days are now 1.8 microseconds shorter.[102]. Some houses along the coast in Jayapura, Indonesia were destroyed. 2. The committee advised that future policy should be to protect against the highest possible tsunami. Peak electricity consumption recorded by TEPCO during the period was 49.22GW, which is 10.77GW (18%) lower than the peak consumption in the previous year. 3. The map and text below show the following details : a) the observed Seismic Intensity (1 and above) and its location and region, b) the date and time of the earthquake, and c) its epicenter and magnitude. [37] Residents of Sendai had only eight to ten minutes of warning, and more than a hundred evacuation sites were washed away. In Ishinomaki alone, there were 17 trash collection sites 180 metres (590 ft) long and at least 4.5 metres (15 ft) high. Overall electricity consumption during July and August was also 14% less than in the previous year. Fifteen ports were located in the disaster zone. [149][150] Other cities destroyed or heavily damaged by the tsunami include Kamaishi, Miyako, Ōtsuchi, and Yamada (in Iwate Prefecture), Namie, Sōma, and Minamisōma (in Fukushima Prefecture) and Shichigahama, Higashimatsushima, Onagawa, Natori, Ishinomaki, and Kesennuma (in Miyagi Prefecture). Helen Jung and Jeff Manning, "Waves bring destruction to Oregon's south coast", 「津波 太平洋を往復」Nikkei 2 May 2014 Morning News, Inajima, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yuji (11 March 2011). [320] On 5 April 2011, the government of the Ibaraki Prefecture banned the fishing of sand lance after discovering that this species was contaminated by radioactive caesium above legal limits. , 2011; Simons et a l. , 2011). [79] Other major earthquakes with tsunamis struck the Sanriku Coast region in 1896 and in 1933. Some of the first research to come from the archive was a 2014 paper from the Digital Methods Initiative in Amsterdam about patterns of Twitter usage around the time of the disaster. The backup cooling process is powered by emergency diesel generators at the plants and at Rokkasho nuclear reprocessing plant. The strong ground motion registered at the maximum of 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale in Kurihara, Miyagi Prefecture. The epicentre was 43 miles east of Tohoku at a depth of 20 miles. The Japan Meteorological Agency announced the English name as. [94] The axial shift was caused by the redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface, which changed the planet's moment of inertia. A tsunami—Japanese for “harbor wave”—is a series of powerful waves caused by the displacement of a large body of water. Victims aged 60 or older accounted for 65.2% of the deaths, with 24% of total victims being in their 70s. [147][148] Also largely destroyed was Rikuzentakata, where the tsunami was three stories high. [346], The Tōhoku Shinkansen line was worst hit, with JR East estimating that 1,100 sections of the line, varying from collapsed station roofs to bent power pylons, will need repairs. Initially, the earthquake caused sinking of part of Honshu's Pacific coast by up to roughly a metre, but after about three years, the coast rose back and kept on rising to exceed its original height. The Tsukuba control center resumed full operations for the space station's Kibo laboratory and the HTV cargo craft on 21 March 2011. He was killed by the earthquake and tsunami at Kamaishi, Iwate. The epicenter of the earthquake was about 130 km (81 miles) southeast of Aomori, Tohoku region, with a depth of 60 km (37 miles). "Japanese Team Comes of Age, and Lifts a Country (Published 2011)", "What Have Religious Groups Done After 3.11? [329], As a result of 7 April aftershock, Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant lost 3 of 4 external power lines and lost cooling function for as much as 80 minutes. [170] It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. [380] YokosoNews, an Internet webcast in Japan, dedicated its broadcast to the latest news gathered from Japanese news stations, translating them in real time to English. [253] A total of 319 fishing ports, about 10% of Japan's fishing ports, were damaged in the disaster. Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures 12,500 in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama, Tochigi, and to spent! That the early estimate of magnitude 8.9 was later revised upward. the coastlines affected the... Name as a spinning top health across Japan erupted in January 2011 ; it is that... 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